Password managers allow the storage and retrieval of sensitive information from an encrypted database. Users rely on them to provide better security guarantees against trivial exfiltration than alternative ways of storing passwords, such as an unsecured flat text file. In this paper we propose security guarantees password managers should offer and examine the underlying workings of five popular password managers targeting the Windows 10 platform: 1Password 7 , 1Password 4 , Dashlane , KeePass , and LastPass . We anticipated that password managers would employ basic security best practices, such as scrubbing secrets from memory when they are not in use and sanitization of memory once a password manager was logged out and placed into a locked state. However, we found that in all password managers we examined, trivial secrets extraction was possible from a locked password manager, including the master password in some cases, exposing up to 60 million users that use the password managers in this study to secrets retrieval from an assumed secure locked state.
The research results from our assessment of 12 healthcare facilities, 2 healthcare data facilities, 2 active medical devices from one manufacturer, and 2 web applications that remote adversaries can easily deploy attacks that target and compromise patient health. We demonstrated that a variety of deadly remote attacks were possible within these facilities, of which four attack scenarios are presented in this report. To understand these ecosystems, a two year study was performed from January, 2014 through January, 2016 of critical elements within these facilities as they relate to securing patient health. Our goal was to create a blueprint --a step-by-step action plan-- that all medical facilities can follow as the foundational element in reaching full security readiness. The research was driven by a handson analysis of various healthcare systems, applications, and budgets, interviews with hospital, data center, and medical device manufacturer employees, and sourcing industry knowledge from thought leaders on our advisory board. The findings show an industry in turmoil: lack of executive support, insufficient talent, improper implementations of technology, outdated understanding of adversaries, lack of leadership, and a misguided reliance upon compliance. These findings illustrate our greatest fear: patient health remains extremely vulnerable. The output of the research is the production of a modern patient-health focused attack model, and a blueprint that advocates a phased approach to security design and implementation for healthcare facilities that focuses on the protection of patient health assets.
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